With the constant voice of global sustainable development, environmental protection and energy conservation have become the theme of the times. Low-carbon, low-cost travel tools have become the darling of people around the world in the new era. At the same time, electric vehicles developed rapidly and quickly became popular around the world. In order to facilitate the management of different regions and countries with different management and import standards for electric vehicles, China is the most technologically advanced and export-oriented region. It is very important to fully understand the standards for electric vehicles in various regions. The majority of manufacturers have some of the electric vehicle standards in parts such as the United States, Japan, and Taiwan.
First, the United States
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration stipulates that low-speed electric bicycles are classified as consumer products, and electric bicycle products are subject to the jurisdiction of the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) stipulates that low-speed electric bicycles or tricycles manufactured for commercial use must be equipped with pedals that can be stepped on. The electric motor has an output of no more than 750 watts and a speed of up to 20 miles per hour (32 kilometers). The weight of the whole vehicle does not exceed 50 kg. Compared with other countries, the specifications and restrictions of electric bicycle products in the United States can be said to be the most relaxed, but the definitions and specifications of electric bicycles in different states are different.
Japan has imposed strict restrictions on the management of the use of electric bicycles. Japan only allows “smart electric bicycles” to go on the road, and has strict regulations on the requirements of “smart electric bicycles”. The specific provisions of the Japanese road traffic law for electric bicycles are as follows:
- In any road condition, the speed is less than 15 kilometers, manpower: electric ≥ 1, that is, the electric power is not allowed to be greater than the manpower, but the electric power is close to the manpower.
- In any road condition, when the speed is greater than 15km/h, the power is reduced by 1/9 for every 1km/h increase in speed.
- When the speed exceeds 24km/h, the electric system of the whole vehicle is turned off.
- Within one second after the start of the manpower pedaling, the electric assist system begins to be requested, and within one second of the manpower stepping, the vehicle electric assist system is turned off.
- In order to save energy, the intelligent electric auxiliary bicycle stops running for a certain period of time (usually 3~5 minutes), and the whole vehicle is in a dormant state.
- It must ensure the continuity of the ride, the power can not be intermittent.
Third, the EU
Electric bicycles are generally divided into two categories in the European Union: electric assisted bicycles and electric bicycles. The so-called electric bicycle that does not require a driver’s license to legally enter the road refers to a power-assisted bicycle with a maximum power limit of 250 watts and a top speed of 25 kilometers per hour.
On April 30, 2009, the European Standards Committee officially announced the new electric-assisted bicycle specification EPAC/EN15194, which contains relevant technical specifications and testing procedures. The European-standard electric-assisted bicycle EPAC, which has a maximum continuous output of 250 watts and a speed of 25 km, it must be automatically powered off. It uses a 48 VDC battery or 230 V input power charger.
The safety specifications and test methods of the E-bike’s engine system and charging system circuit set by the EPAC standard. The new EPAC standard is more complex than the previous CEN standard. The main test content has three major projects: EMC, safety and mechanical properties, among which EMC standards compatible with electromagnetic are the most difficult to pass. The EMC standard is mainly to ensure the safety of the driver who uses the electric vehicle, and to ensure that the electronic components of the vehicle are not interfered by the electromagnetic pulse generated by the mobile phone, etc., and the electric bicycle is officially defined as EPAC (Electrically Pedal Assisted Cycle).
The EU tested the EN15194 standard in January 2009, which will apply to 30 countries in the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland , Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom. Full name of the regulation: EN15194:2009 Cycles Electrically power assisted cycles-EPAC Electric assisted bicycle. This standard applies to electric assisted bicycles that meet the following conditions:
- The maximum rated power is 250 watts (0.25kw);
- When the speed reaches 25km/h or stops stepping on, the output horsepower will gradually weaken and finally turn off;
- The battery voltage is lower than 48VDC or built-in charger voltage 230V
The main test content included in this standard is:
1, Mechanical strength of the whole vehicle EN 14764
2, the design of the circuit and the specifications of the wire used
3, Electromagnetic compatibility (interference and tolerance)
4, battery safety test
5, waterproof test IEC 60529 IP X4
7, overspeed and brake power off
8, Body labeling and manual content requirements
Since 2001, the Canadian Federal Security Act has defined standards for electric assisted bicycles (PABs). It is defined as a two- or three-wheeled bicycle equipped with an electric motor of 500 watts or less, and can be stepped on by both feet without power supply. In addition, under the safety requirements regulations, it must also meet the maximum of 32 kilometers, and the manufacturer must indicate that it is an electric bicycle in the obvious body, but the requirements of electric vehicles in each province of Canada are not the same, the following list Requirements of the relevant provinces.
- Alberta: The province allows electric bicycles to legally ride on the road, but the maximum speed limit is 32 km, the maximum motor output is 750 watts, the total weight must not exceed 35 kg, and the driver must wear a helmet.
- Ontario: The province is one of the slowest roads in Canada to allow electric bicycles to legally go on. On October 4, 2006, the Ontario Minister of Transportation announced that electric bicycles are in line with federal standards before they can formally go on the road, and electric Bicycle drivers must be at least 16 years of age and must wear a helmet and also comply with bicycle regulations. The maximum weight of electric vehicles is limited to 120kg, the maximum braking distance is 9 meters, and the modified motor is prohibited to allow speeds of more than 32 kilometers per hour. In addition, electric bicycles are not allowed on 400 series expressways, expressways or other prohibited areas, under 16 years old. Those who do not wear qualified helmets will be fined 60 to 500 dollars.
The Australian Government’s Motor Vehicle Management Standards Act stipulates that all vehicles on the road must comply with Australian Design Rules (ADRs) prior to listing. The vehicles covered include bicycles and electric assisted bicycles. Its definition is as follows:
1, two-wheel and three-wheeled vehicles.
2, completely trampled by humans to advance.
3, A power-assisted bicycle is a bicycle with pedals loaded with one or more power assists with a maximum output power of no more than 250 watts.
4, An moped is not a power-assisted bicycle. It refers to a small motorcycle equipped with a motor and an engine. The engine cylinder capacity does not exceed 50 CC, and the maximum does not exceed 50 km.
In India, all electric vehicles must pass the ARAI certification. Electric vehicles with output power below 250W and speeds below 25km are easier to pass, while electric vehicles with larger horsepower need to pass the complete CMVR regulatory test procedure. It is very time consuming and costly, so it has also delayed the market for Indian electric vehicles.
Seven, New Zealand
Vehicles with a motor output of less than 300W are classified as electric bicycles and must comply with the same specifications as bicycles.
Eight, Hong Kong
Since Hong Kong is implementing “one country, two systems”, Hong Kong has independent traffic regulations. Electric bicycles are regarded as motorcycles in Hong Kong. They must be approved by the Transport Department for import. No one on Hong Kong’s electric bicycles has passed the audit, so electric bicycles in Hong Kong are illegal. Even if the electric bike passes the audit, the driver must still have a motorcycle driver’s license to get on the road. In addition, there is no so-called light moped in Hong Kong, moped is also recognized as a motorcycle.